A non-destructive testing method used to detect surface discontinuities in various materials. It involves applying a liquid penetrant, typically a colored dye or a fluorescent substance, to the surface of the object. The penetrant seeps into any surface cracks or imperfections through capillary action. After cleaning off excess penetrant, a developer is applied to draw out the trapped penetrant, making the defects visible under white light or ultraviolet light.

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